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Thanh Hóa


Thanh Hóa

Thanh Hóa City
Thành Phố Thanh Hóa
(from top left): Thanh Hóa Bridge, Lê Lợi Avenue; middle: Lê Lợi statue; bottom: Lam Son Square, Đông Sơn drums
(from top left): Thanh Hóa Bridge, Lê Lợi Avenue; middle: Lê Lợi statue; bottom: Lam Son Square, Đông Sơn drums
Nickname(s): Hạc Thành
Thanh Hóa City is located in Vietnam
Thanh Hóa City
Country  Vietnam
Province Thanh Hóa
Founded 1994
 • Type Provincial city
 • Party Secretary Nguyễn Xuân Phi
 • Provincial Committee Chairman: Đào Trọng Quy
 • Provincial Council Chairman: Nguyễn Xuân Phi
 • City 146.77 km2 (22.3 sq mi)
 • Urban 61,45 km2 (2,373 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • City 406,550
 • Density 2,820/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +84 (37)

Thanh Hóa City (  ) is the capital city of Thanh Hóa Province.[1] The city is situated in east of the province and beside noble Ma River (Sông Mã), about 150 km south of Hanoi and 1560 km north of Ho Chi Minh city. Thanh Hoa City became one of the most populous city in North Central Coast after expansion in 2012 with population of approximate 400.000. Thanh Hoa township had been upgraded to Thanh Hoa City in 1994 and has been centre of politic, economy, culture, education and entertainment of Thanh Hóa Province for a long time.


  • Overview 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
    • Topography 3.1
    • Climate 3.2
      • Temperature 3.2.1
      • Monsoon 3.2.2
      • Rainfall 3.2.3
  • Administrative Subdivision 4
  • Economy 5
  • Transportation 6
  • References 7


Thanh Hoa is a new developing city although its central position had established for long time ago. Nowsaday, provincial administrators are trying to build and gentrification the city so that emphasis important role for the whole provine and even North Central Coast.


The Thanh Hóa (清化) town and region were an area of popular support for Lê Lợi and the Lê dynasty in the 1580s,[2] leading to the reestablishment of the southern court near the town following the withdrawal of Ming dynasty armies.[3] After 1945 the city was a stronghold of the Viet Minh. In January 1946 the Viet Minh transported all local cells of the VNQDD to the city.[4] During the Vietnam War, US strategic bombing destroyed much of the buildings and infrastructure, the whole city has been totally rebuilt since then.



Thanh Hoa city is located in centre of Thanh Hoa's plain with many scattered rocky mountains surround. There are two main mountains along the city: Hàm Rồng and Mật Sơn. Hàm Rồng mountain begins from Thiệu Dương commune, which is about 8 km from city centre, along the right bank of the Ma River to Hàm Rồng Thanh Hóa Bridge pier. Ham Rong mountain has 99 peaks and had become an entrench for air defensive in Operation Rolling Thunder. Ma River is the longest river flow through the city, meandering around Ham Rong mountain before flowing to South East Asian sea. In addition, there are 5 canals were dug in order to support for watering, drought and flooding.



In region of tropical monsoon climate, Thanh Hoa city has four seasons with two distinctive hot and cold atmospheres in a year.

  • The hot season: Beginning in late spring to mid-autumn (April to mid-November), weather is extreme heat with sunny and sometime Foehn wind. The highest temperature may reach over 40 degrees Celsius. In this period, flood and drought occur frequently.
  • The cold season: Beginning in November to the end of March the following year. The atmosphere is mostly cloudy and dried with cold monsoon from Northeast direction. The lowest temperature may down to 5 degrees Celsius

Annual temperature is between 23.3 °C and 23.6 °C.


Thanh Hoa city is located in coast region so it is effected by three seasonal winds, which are mainly referred to distinctive wind directions.

  • Northeast direction wind: Blowing from Serbia, and usually comes in January. The winds causes the coldest period of winter.
  • Foehn wind: Blowing from Bengal passing on Laos to North Central Coast Vietnam. Thus, it's called "Gió Lào" in Vietnamese referred to the wind from Laos direction. The wind occurs in summer, normally July or August and causes the hottest atmosphere in a year.
  • Southeast direction wind (Gió Nồm): Blowing from sea and occurring in Summer. At the heat of hot season, the winds brings fresh atmosphere to land and cool down temperature


Annual rainfall average is 1730 – 1980 mm.

Administrative Subdivision

By the time 2012, Thanh Hoa city had 12 inner wards and 6 outer communes. After expansion in February 2012, the city merged some subdivisions from other nearby districts and that extended total of urban subdivisions up to 37. Thanh Hoa city currently has 20 inner wards and 17 outer communes.

20 Inner Wards Area Population Density 17 Outer Communes Area Population Density
An Hoạch 2.55 5,953 2,335 Ðông Hưng 4.36 3,723 854
Ba Ðình 0.7 12,383 16,852 Ðông Lĩnh 8.83 9,026 1,022
Ðiện Biên 0.68 9,719 14,293 Ðông Tân 4.51 7,401 124
Ðông Thọ 3.64 13,902 3,809 Ðông Vinh 4.38 3,347 764
Ðông Cương 6.8 16,800 1,313 Hoằng Anh 3.49 4,100 1,175
Ðông Hải 6.84 16,100 2,354 Hoàng Ðại 4.67 4,902 910
Ðông Hương 3.37 17,000 5,045 Hoằng Long 2.29 2,571 1,123
Ðông Sơn 0.84 9,622 11,154 Hoằng Lý 2.9 3,063 1,056
Ðông Vệ 4.78 16,107 3,370 Hoằng Quang 6.28 6,098 971
Hàm Rồng 4.18 5,022 1,201 Quảng Cát 6.9 5,004 790
Lam Sơn 0.86 12,676 14,740 Quảng Ðông 6.6 5,089 780
Nam Ngạn 1.58 8,475 5,363 Quảng Phú 6.6 7,054 1,120
Ngọc Trạo 0.54 11,183 20,709 Quảng Tâm 3.7 9,619 2,710
Phú Sơn 1.93 8,453 4,380 Quảng Thành 5.6 7,918 1,512
Quảng Hưng 5.73 7,236 1,263 Thiệu Dương 5.66 9,604 1,706
Quảng Thành 8.49 20,000 2,356 Thiệu Khánh 5.38 9,577 1,790
Quảng Thắng 3.55 5,927 1,670 Thiệu Vân 3.7 5,861 1,620
Tào Xuyên 2.75 6,520 2,965 Total of Communes 85.85 103,127 1,202
Tân Sơn 0.78 11,114 14,249
Trường Thi 0.86 11,926 13,867
Total of Wards 61.45 226,118 3,680

Note: Area: km2; Density: People/km2 (Statistics in 2009)

After expansion, Thanh Hoa city's population had rise up from 207,698 to 406,550 people (2014). According to urban development plan in 2012, the estimated population will be approximate 1 million in 2030 with 800,000 urban people.


According statistic in 2013, GDP sector composition of the city's economy:

Annual economic growth rate is 15% (2013). Total of capital development fund estimated 12,665 thousand billion VND (~650 million USD), export volume estimated 504 million USD. State budgets revenue is 1,436 thousand billion VND(~70 million USD). GDP per capital is 3,930 USD.

Currently, there are three industrial regions locally:

  • Le Mon industrial region: Is situated in the east and 5 km from city centre. The industrial hub was established in 2005 with planned scale 87 hectare. Main industries concentrate on high-tech applications, manufacturing and processing raw materials within province, agricultural, forestry and fishery, mechanical assembly, electronic and telecommunication devices,... Some FDI organizations invested and operate are Sunjade company (Taiwan), Sakura company, Yotsuba Dress company (Japan), Vinamilk,...
  • Dinh Huong industrial region: Is located 2 km from north city centre.


'Lê Lợi Avenue'

As central position of province, Thanh Hoa city is the heart of transport network, where every essential transportation modes are aggregated such as North–South Railway (Vietnam), National Route 1A (Vietnam), National Route 47, buses system and many other provincial routes.

Le Mon port is situated beside Ma River and 4 km from city centre east. This river port supports and provides transportation for Le Mon industrial region.

In February 2013, Tho Xuan Airport, which is located 45 km to the east from city, was implemented and upgrade to turn into a mixed civilian/military airport. This airport became the place provide air transport services for Thanh Hoa city.


  1. ^ Robert Trando Letters of a Vietnamese Émigre -2010 Page 144 "The name of its city is Thanh Hóa City."
  2. ^ Keat Gin Ooi Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East ... Volume 1 - Page 805 2004 "Mac efforts notwithstanding, many people went south to support the restoration of the Le dynasty in Thanh Hoa. Throughout the sixteenth century, Mac-Le animosity was played out on the battlefield."
  3. ^ Vietnam Insight Guides 2002 - Page 20 "The southern court is founded near Thanh Hoa. 1592: The death of Mac dynasty's last king, Mac Mau Hop, ends the war."
  4. ^ Van Dao Hoang Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang: A Contemporary History of a National Struggle: 1927-1954 2008 Page 331 "Afterward, the VC transported all Party members and their weapons to Thanh Hóa city."
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