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Slovio

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Title: Slovio  
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Slovio

Slovio
Created by Mark Hučko
Date 1999
Setting and usage Auxiliary language
Purpose
Latin, Cyrillic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Glottolog None

Slovio (from the Slavic word "slovo") is a constructed language begun in 1999 by Mark Hučko. Hučko claims that the language should be relatively easy for non-Slavs to learn as well, as an alternative to tongues such as Esperanto which are based more on Latin root words.

Alphabet

Latin: a b c cx d e f g (gx) h i j k l m n o p r s sx t u v (wx) z zx
Cyrillic: а б ц ч д е ф г (дж) х и й к л м н о п р с ш т у в (щ) з ж

Optional characters:

Grammar

Slovio has a relatively simple grammar based on that of Slavic languages. Just like in natural Slavic languages, new words can be formed with a variety of suffixes and prefixes. Most words are identified by their endings, such as adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.

Numerals

Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 100 1000
Numeral Latin nul din dva tri cxtir piat sxes siem vos dev des dvades trides sto tisicx
Cyrillic нул дин два три чтир пиат шес сием вос дев дес двадес тридес сто тисич

Fractions can be made by adding -tink to a numeral. ex. dvatink = 1/2, tritink = 1/3, tri piattink = 3/5

Ordinal numbers can be made by adding -ju to a numeral. ex. dinju = first, dvaju = second

The names of shapes can also be made by adding -ugolik to a numeral. ex. triugolik = triangle, cxtirugolik = square/rectangle

Pronouns

The 3rd person singular high class pronoun to describes people or high animals with an unknown gender. Svoi is a genitive pronoun that means "my own, your own, his own, their own, etc.".

The accusative of the 3rd person singular low class pronoun can optionally be written nam, and the dative nas. Vams functions in the same manner, optionally vam for the accusative and vas for the dative.

Nouns

Nouns have no special endings or declensions. Nouns can however be made plural, indicate subject or object, or describe direction.

Nouns can be made plural by adding -s. ex. okno (window) - oknos (windows). If the noun ends in a or a consonant, you add -is. ex. dom (house) domis (houses). This suffix can optionally be left out if the noun dealt with is clearly a plural.

Optionally, to make a noun genitive, the suffix -(u)f is added. If the noun is plural, then it becomes -(i)fs.

Nouns are not changed if a preposition precedes them.

Adjectives

Adjectives normally end in -ju. ex. dobrju (good), velju (big), silaju (strong). If the word ends in ia or ie then it replaces it. ex. galaktia (galaxy) - galaktju (galatical), morie (sea) - morju (marine). Adjectives can also end in -(e)sk if pronunciation with -ju would be difficult to pronounce or if it is unclear whether it is an adjective or adverb.

If an adjective is slight, then add -just to the adjective. ex. zxoltju (yellow) - zxoltjust (yellowish, slightly yellow). This suffix is somewhat equivalent to English "-ish". The prefixes mal- or slab- can also be used in the same manner. ex. slabbelju (whitish).

Opposites of adjectives can be formed with the prefix bez-. ex. bezdobrju (bad); opasju (dangerous) - bezopasju (safe).

Comparatives and Superlatives

To make an adjective more, precede it with plus or bolsx or add -jusx. ex plus velju, bolsx velju, veljusx (bigger); mlodju (young) - plus mlodju (younger); Ti es krasjusx cxem ja. (You are more beautiful than I). To make it less, precede it with mensx or minus. ex mensz velju, minus velju (less big). To make it the most, precede it with maks or nai-. ex. maks velju, naivelju (the biggest); maks mlodju (the youngest). To make it the least, precede it with min or naimensx. ex. min velju, naimensx velju (the least big/the smallest); min mlodju, naimensx mlodju (the least young).

Adjective Participles.

To make adjective participles, either the active adjective participles -bsju for future, -tsju for present, -lsju for past, or the passive adjective participles -bju for future, tju for present, lju for past.

To make an adjective an active verb, add -juvit to the root. The -t can be changed to change its tense. dobrjuvit (make better/improve), veljuvit (enlarge/make bigger). To make it a passive verb, add -juvsit to the root. dobrjuvsit (become better/improve oneself), veljuvsit (grow up/become bigger).

Adjectives do not have a plural form.

Verbs

Slovio verbs can have various endings. To create the infinitive and present, add -vit if the root ends in an o, -it if it ends in a consonant, and -t and optionally -vit if it ends in a, e, i, or u.

Other conjugations can be derived from the infinitive by replacing -t with the ending which corresponds to whichever tense is needed. Replace it with -b for future, -l for past, and -lbi conditional, and -j for imperative. The exceptions to this rule are es (to be), mozx (can), hce (want) dolzx (have to), and dolzxbi (should). Es is replaced by the other helping verbs to change its tense, mozx, dolzx, and dolzxbi are preceded by the helping verbs to change tense, and hce is simply a variant of hotit (want).

The helping verbs are bu (will do/will be), es (does/is), bil (did/has done/was), and bi (would have done/would have been).

To make the verb show duration or repetition, add -va- between the root and the tense suffix. This affix is somewhat like English "used to" in past tense. ex. Ja cxudovil (I wondered) - Ja cxudovavil (I used to wonder). To make it show completion, add the prefix zu-.

To make a verb into a noun which is the action or activity of the verb, add -(e)nie, -ie, -(a)cia, or -ba. These suffixes are used similarly to English "-ment". ex. vidit (to see) - videnie, viditie (seeing/vision); razvit (to develop) - razvitie, razvenie (development), sluzxit (to serve), sluzxba (service).

To make the verb an adjective with possibility, add -mozxju or -mju. ex. vidit (see) - vidimozxju or vidimju (visible), mozg-cxistit (brainwash) mozg-cxistimju (brainwashable). To make it an adverb with possibility, add -mozxuo or -muo. ex. vidimozxuo or vidimuo (visibly). To make it a noun with possibility, add -mozxost or -most. ex. vidimozxost or vidimost (visibility). These suffixes are similar to English "-able".

To make it an adjective with necessity, add -nuzxju. ex. vidit (see) - vidinuzxju (which needs to be seen). To make it an adverb with necessity, add -nuzxuo. ex. vidinuzxuo (with a need to be seen). To make it a noun with necessity, add -nuzxost. ex. vidinuzxost (the need to be seen/need to see something). These suffixes are similar to English "needs to be".

To make it an adjective with obligation, add -dolzxju. ex. vidit (see) - vididolzxju(which must be seen). To make it an adverb with obligation, add -dolzxuo. ex. vididolzxuo (with obligation to be seen). To make it a noun with necessity, add -dolzxost. ex. vididolzxost (the obligation to be seen).

Adverbs

Adverbs normally end in -uo. ex. dobruo (well), bistruo (quickly). They can also end in -(e)sk if pronunciation with -uo is difficult or it is unclear whether it is an adverb or adjective.

Opposites of adverbs can be formed with the prefix bez-. ex. opasuo (dangerously), bezopasuo (safely).

Comparatives and Superlatives

To make an adverb more, precede it with plus or bolsx or add -ue. ex. plus bistruo, bolsx bistruo, bistrue (quicker); plus dobruo, bolsx dobruo, dobrue (better). To make it less, precede it with mensx or minus. ex mensx bistruo, minus bistruo (less quick/slower); mensx dobruo, minus dobruo (less well). To make it the most, precede it with maks or nai-. ex. maks bistruo, naibistruo (the quickest); maks dobruo, naidobruo (the best). To make it the least, precede it with min or naimensx. ex. min velju,

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