Savak

Sazeman-e Ettela'at va Amniyat-e Keshvar
Agency overview
Formed 1957
Dissolved 1979
Superseding agency
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Employees 60,000 at peak
Minister responsible
  • Intelligence
Agency executives

SAVAK (

  • Ministry of Intelligence and Security VEVAK – Iran Intelligence Agencies at website of Federation of American Scientists

External links

  1. ^ Iran, Library of Congress Country Studies (pp 276). Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  2. ^ Federation of American Scientists "Ministry of Security SAVAK"
  3. ^ a b Intelligence (international relations) : Iran. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
  4. ^ Dilip Hiro, Iran under the ayatollahs (1987), p. 96.
  5. ^ Gholam Reza Afkhami, Life and Times of the Shah (University of California Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5), p. 386.
  6. ^ Nikki R. Keddie and Yann Richard, Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution (Yale University Press, 2006), p. 134.
  7. ^ M. J. Gasiorowski, eds., Neither East Nor West. Iran, the United States, and the Soviet Union, New Haven, 1990, pp. 148–51
  8. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agencyin Persia Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  9. ^ N. R. Keddie and M. J. Gasiorowski, eds., Neither East Nor West: Iran, the United States, and the Soviet Union (New Haven, 1990), pp. 154-55; personal interviews.
  10. ^ Profile: Norman Schwarzkopf Sr. History Commons
  11. ^ New York Times, 21 September 1972.
  12. ^ a b Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions, p.437
  13. ^ a b "National security". Pars Times. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Harvard Iranian Oral History Project Transcript of interview with Fatemeh Pakravan conducted by Habib Ladjevardi 3 March 1983.
  15. ^ Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam (Yale University Press, 1985), p. 255.
  16. ^ Bill, James A., Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations(Yale University Press, 1989), p. 181-182
  17. ^ Ervand Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions (University of California Press, 1999), p. 106.
  18. ^ Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions, p. 106.
  19. ^ Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions, pp. 103, 169.
  20. ^ Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions, pp. 442-3.
  21. ^ Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions, p. 119.
  22. ^ Fisk. Great War for Civilisation, p. 112.
  23. ^ Kapuściński, Ryszard, Shah of Shahs, pp. 46, 50, 76
  24. ^ SAVAK: "Like the CIA". Feb. 19, 1979.
  25. ^ Ministry of Security SAVAK, Federation of American Scientists.
  26. ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.176
  27. ^ The ministry is also referred to as VEVAK, Vezarat-e Ettela'at va Amniat-e Keshvar, though Iranians and the Iranian press never employ this term, using instead the official Ministry title.
  28. ^ Charles Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution (Harvard University Press), p?
  29. ^ Robert Dreyfuss, Hostage to Khomeini 1981 and The Devils Game: How the United States Unleashed Fundamentalist Islam, 2004

References

See also

called "Ebrat". The museum displays and exhibits the documented atrocities of SAVAK. Tehran in central Towhid Prison After the victory of the Islamic revolution, a museum was opened in the former [29]

According to author Charles Kurzman, SAVAK was never dismantled but rather changed its name and leadership and continued on with the same codes of operation, and a relatively unchanged "staff." [3][28]

SAVAK was replaced by the "much larger"[26] SAVAMA, Sazman-e Ettela'at va Amniat-e Melli-e Iran, also known as the Ministry of Intelligence and National Security of Iran.[27]

SAVAK was closed down shortly before the overthrow of the monarchy and the coming to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in the February 1979 Iranian Revolution. Following the departure of the Shah in January 1979, SAVAK's 3,000+ central staff and its agents were targeted for reprisals; almost all of them that were in Iran at the time of the Iranian Revolution were hunted down and executed, only a few, those who were outside of Iran are believed to have survived.

Fardoust and security and intelligence after the revolution

Sources disagree over how many victims SAVAK had and how inhumane its techniques were. Writing at the time of the Shah's overthrow, TIME magazine described SAVAK as having "long been Iran's most hated and feared institution" which had "tortured and murdered thousands of the Shah's opponents."[24] The Federation of American Scientists also found it guilty of "the torture and execution of thousands of political prisoners" and symbolizing "the Shah's rule from 1963-79." The FAS list of SAVAK torture methods included "electric shock, whipping, beating, inserting broken glass and pouring boiling water into the rectum, tying weights to the testicles, and the extraction of teeth and nails." [25]

Victims

SAVAK Directors
Name First year of operation Last year of operation
Teymur Bakhtiar 1957 1961
Hassan Pakravan 1961 1965
Nematollah Nassiri 1965 1978
Nasser Moghadam 1978 1979
  • Censorship of press, books and films.[23]
  • Interrogation and often torture of prisoners
  • Surveillance of political opponents.

According to Polish author Ryszard Kapuściński, SAVAK was responsible for

Teymur Bakhtiar was assassinated by SAVAK agents in 1970, and Mansur Rafizadeh, SAVAK's United States director during the 1970s, reported that General Nassiri's phone was tapped. Mansur Rafizadeh later published his life as a SAVAK man and detailed the human rights violations of the Shah in his book Witness: From the Shah to the Secret Arms Deal: An Insider's Account of U.S. Involvement in Iran. Mansur Rafizadeh was suspected to have been a double agent also working for the CIA.

During the height of its power, SAVAK had virtually unlimited powers. It operated its own detention centers, like Evin Prison. In addition to domestic security the service's tasks extended to the surveillance of Iranians abroad, notably in the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, and especially students on government stipends. The agency also closely collaborated with the American CIA by sending their agents to an air force base in New York to share and discuss interrogation tactics.[22]

Operations

By 1976, this repression was softened considerably thanks to publicity and scrutiny by "numerous international organizations and foreign newspapers." In 1976, Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States and he "raised the issue of human rights in Iran as well as in the Soviet Union. Overnight prison conditions changed. Inmates dubbed this the dawn of `jimmykrasy.` [21]

One well known writer was arrested, tortured for months, and finally placed before television cameras to 'confess' that his works paid too much attention to social problems and not enough to the great achievements of the White Revolution. By the end of 1975, twenty-two prominent poets, novelist, professors, theater directors, and film makers were in jail for criticizing the regime. And many others had been physically attacked for refusing to cooperate with the authorities.[20]

Abrahamian estimates that SAVAK (and other police and military) killed 368 People's Mujahedin of Iran) such as Hamid Ashraf between 1971–1977 and executed something less than 100 political prisoners between 1971 and 1979 – the most violent era of the SAVAK's existence.[19]

A turning point in SAVAK's reputation for ruthless brutality was reportedly an attack on a gendarmerie post in the Caspian village of Siahkal by a small band of armed Marxists in February 1971, although it is also reported to have tortured to death a Shia cleric, Ayatollah Muhammad Reza Sa'idi, in 1970.[15][16] According to Iranian political historian Ervand Abrahamian, after this attack SAVAK interrogators were sent abroad for "scientific training to prevent unwanted deaths from 'brute force.' Brute force was supplemented with the bastinado; sleep deprivation; extensive solitary confinement; glaring searchlights; standing in one place for hours on end; nail extractions; snakes (favored for use with women); electrical shocks with cattle prods, often into the rectum; cigarette burns; sitting on hot grills; acid dripped into nostrils; near-drownings; mock executions; and an electric chair with a large metal mask to muffle screams while amplifying them for the victim. This latter contraption was dubbed the Apollo—an allusion to the American space capsules. Prisoners were also humiliated by being raped, urinated on, and forced to stand naked.[17] Despite the new 'scientific' methods, the torture of choice remained the traditional bastinado used to beat soles of the feet. The "primary goal" of those using the bastinados "was to locate arms caches, safe houses and accomplices ..." [18]

Siahkal attack and after

Pakravan was replaced in 1966 by General Shia and communist militancy and political unrest.

General Hassan Pakravan, director of SAVAK from 1961 to 1966,[13] had an almost benevolent reputation, for example dining with the Ayatollah Khomeini while Khomeini was under house arrest on a weekly basis, and later intervened to prevent Khomeini's execution on the grounds it would "anger the common people of Iran".[14] After the Iranian Revolution, however, Pakravan was among the first of the Shah's officials to be executed by the Khomeini regime.

In 1961 the Iranian authorities dismissed the agency's first director, General Teymur Bakhtiar;[13] he later became a political dissident. In 1970 SAVAK agents assassinated him, disguising the deed as an accident.

SAVAK had the power to censor the media, screen applicants for government jobs, "and according to reliable Western source,[11] use all means necessary, including torture, to hunt down dissidents".[12] After 1963, the Shah expanded his security organizations, including SAVAK, which grew to over 5,300 full-time agents and a large but unknown number of part-time informers.[12]

[10][9] These in turn were replaced by SAVAK’s own instructors in 1965.[8] In March 1955, the Army colonel was "replaced with a more permanent team of five career

A U.S. Army colonel working for the CIA was sent to Persia in September 1953 to work with General Tudeh Party network that had been established in the Persian armed forces[7][8]

After removing the populist regime of Mohammad Mosaddeq (which was originally focused on nationalizing Iran's oil industry but also set out to weaken the Shah's power) from power on 19 August 1953, in a coup, the monarch, Mohammad Reza Shah, established an intelligence service with police powers. The Shah's goal was[6] to strengthen his regime by placing political opponents under surveillance and repress dissident movements. According to Encyclopædia Iranica:

1957–1970

History

Contents

  • History 1
    • 1957–1970 1.1
    • Siahkal attack and after 1.2
  • Operations 2
  • Victims 3
  • Fardoust and security and intelligence after the revolution 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

[5] estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.Gholam Reza Afkhami although [4]

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