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List of German inventions and discoveries


List of German inventions and discoveries

The following list is composed of items, techniques and processes that were invented by or discovered by people from Germany or German-speaking Europe.


  • Anatomy 1
  • Archaeology 2
  • Arts 3
  • Astronomy 4
  • Biology and genetics 5
  • Chemistry 6
  • Clothing and fashion 7
  • Computing 8
  • Construction and architecture 9
  • Cuisine 10
  • Education and printing 11
  • Entertainment and media 12
  • Geology and mining 13
  • Household and office appliance 14
  • Mathematics 15
  • Medicine 16
  • Military 17
  • Musical instruments 18
  • Physics 19
  • Sociology, philosophy and politics 20
  • Religion and ethics 21
  • Science 22
    • Scientific instruments 22.1
  • Spaceflight 23
  • Sport 24
  • Tourism and recreation 25
  • Toys 26
  • Transportation 27
  • See also 28
  • References 29






Illustration of Kepler's second law

Biology and genetics

Overview of the citric acid cycle (click to enlarge)
Plateosaurus Skelett
A reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis.
Events involving meiosis, showing chromosomal crossover


Bunsen burner

Clothing and fashion


Replica of the Z1 in the German Museum of Technology in Berlin

Construction and architecture

Drill scheme


A glass of Berliner Weisse flavoured with raspberry syrup
Pfälzer Saumagen
Toast Hawaii

Education and printing

Entertainment and media

Geology and mining

Map of Pangaea with modern continents outlined

Household and office appliance

Two-hole (filebinder) hole punch


Regional variations (English, German, Russian) of the integral symbol.
surfaces of Gaussian curvature.
Illustration the intersection of two sets.



Replica of V2

Musical instruments


Geiger-Müller Counter
4-meter-tall sculpture of Einstein's 1905 E = mc2 formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Berlin, Germany.
X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths shorter than visible light. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

Sociology, philosophy and politics

Religion and ethics

Wreath with two candles lit for the second Sunday of Advent


Scientific instruments



Tourism and recreation


First generation Playmobil figures.
The fischertechnik


automobile Benz Velo

See also


  1. ^ Dissertatio anatomica quo novum bilis dicetilicum circa orifucum ductus choledochi ut et valvulosam colli vesicæ felleæ constructionem ad disceptandum proponit, 1720
  2. ^ Brodmann K. Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde. Leipzig : Johann Ambrosius Bart, 1909
  3. ^ Britannica (1911)
  4. ^ Venetskii, S. (1971). "Indium". Metallurgist 15 (2): 148–150.  
  5. ^ Reich, F.; Richter, T. (1864). "Ueber das Indium". Journal für Praktische Chemie (in German) 92 (1): 480–485.  
  6. ^ Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Herzig, Peter M. (2002). Indium: Geology, Mineralogy, and Economics. Springer.  
  7. ^  
  8. ^ – Bohrium
  9. ^ Münzenberg, G.; Armbruster, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Poppensieker, K.; Reisdorf, W.; Schneider, J. H. R.; Schneider, W. F. W. et al. (1982). "Observation of one correlated α-decay in the reaction 58Fe on 209Bi→267109". Zeitschrift für Physik A 309 (1): 89.  
  10. ^ Barber, R. C.; Greenwood, N. N.; Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.; Jeannin, Y. P.; Lefort, M.; Sakai, M.; Ulehla, I.; Wapstra, A. P.; Wilkinson, D. H. (1993). "Discovery of the transfermium elements. Part II: Introduction to discovery profiles. Part III: Discovery profiles of the transfermium elements (Note: for Part I see Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 879-886, 1991)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 65 (8): 1757.  
  11. ^ Karol, P. J.; Nakahara, H.; Petley, B. W.; Vogt, E. (2001). "On the discovery of the elements 110-112 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (6): 959.  
  12. ^ Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Heßberger, F. P.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Münzenberg, G.; Schött, H. J.; Popeko, A. G. et al. (1995). "The new element 111". Zeitschrift für Physik A 350 (4): 281.  
  13. ^ F. F. Runge (1834) "Ueber einige Produkte der Steinkohlendestillation" (On some products of coal distillation), Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 31 : 65-78. On page 69 of volume 31, Runge names phenol "Karbolsäure" (coal-oil-acid, carbolic acid). Runge characterizes phenol in: F. F. Runge (1834) "Ueber einige Produkte der Steinkohlendestillation," Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 32 : 308-328.
  14. ^ Andreas Luch (2009). Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology. Springer. p. 20.  
  15. ^ M. Bockmuhl, Über eine neue Klasse von analgetisch wirkenden Verbindungen Ann. Chem. 561, 52 (1948)
  16. ^ German (DE) Patent 296916
  17. ^ Mannich, C.; Löwenheim, H. (1920). "Ueber zwei neue Reduktionsprodukte des Kodeins". Archiv der Pharmazie 258 (2–4): 295–316.  
  18. ^ Felden, L.; C. Walter; S. Harder; R.-D. Treede; H. Kayser; D. Drover; G. Geisslinger; J. Lötsch (22 September 2011). "Comparative Clinical Effects of Hydromorphone and Morphine". British Journal of Anaesthesia 107 (3): 319–328.  
  19. ^ Sinatra, Raymond (2010). The Essence of Analgesia and Analgesics. MA, USA: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition. p. 123.  
  20. ^ Nicotinates: Nicomorphine, Nicocodeine, Etofibrate, Nicodicodeine, Ronifibrate, Aluminium Nicotinate, Morniflumate, Xantinol Nicotinate. LLC Books. 2010. p. 30.  
  21. ^ F. Gaedcke (1855). "Ueber das Erythroxylin, dargestellt aus den Blättern des in Südamerika cultivirten Strauches Erythroxylon Coca". Archiv der Pharmazie 132 (2): 141–150.  
  22. ^ Edeleano L (1887). "Ueber einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 20 (1): 616–622.  
  23. ^ "Barbiturates". Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  24. ^ Jensen, William B. (September 2006). "The Origins of the Hirsch and Büchner Vacuum Filtration Funnels" (PDF).  
  25. ^ Yahoo Education:Petri dish
  26. ^ Royal Society of Chemistry :Classic Kit: Schlenk apparatus
  27. ^ Jens Bartoll. "The early use of prussian blue in paintings" (PDF). 9th International Conference on NDT of Art, Jerusalem Israel, 25–30 May 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  28. ^ Van Husen, William H. "Zyklon B". World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia(1999) p. 1153.
  29. ^ Leibniz G., Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire, Die Mathematische Schriften, ed. C. Gerhardt, Berlin 1879, vol.7, p.223; Engl. transl.[1]
  30. ^ Ewing, Jack (5 March 2007). "How MP3 Was Born".  
  31. ^ "Wilhelm Albert".  
  32. ^ Koetsier,Teun ; Ceccarelli, Marc (2012). "Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms".  
  33. ^ Donald Sayenga. "Modern History of Wire Rope". History of the Atlantic Cable & Submarine Telegraphy ( Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  34. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 22 Feb. 2009 "Mohs hardness."
  35. ^ The History of Coffee
  36. ^ "Sixty years of the Federal Republic of Germany – a retrospective of everyday life". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  37. ^ Morphine Discovery
  38. ^ Berger's invention has been described "as one of the most surprising, remarkable, and momentous developments in the history of clinical neurology." David Millet (2002), "The Origins of EEG" International Society for the History of the Neurosciences (ISHN)
  39. ^ First World War, Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 106
  40. ^ Zaloga, Steven (2003). V-2 Ballistic Missile 1942-52. Reading: Osprey Publishing. p. 3.  
  41. ^ W. S. Curtis. "Long Range Shooting: A Historical Perspective". 
  42. ^ Darling, David. "Lippisch Ente", The Internet Encyclopedia of Science – Experimental Aircraft. Accessed 5 October 2008.
  43. ^ "Me-163 Komet". Planes of Fame Air Museum. Accessed 5 October 2008.
  44. ^ John Humphries, The Early Horn (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000), p. 41.
  45. ^ Doktorski, Henry. "Interview With Fredrik Dillner - The Owner Of What May Be The World's Oldest Accordion". The Free-Reed Journal : Articles and Essays Featuring Classical Free-Reed Instruments and Performers. Ksanti. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
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  47. ^ Sella, Andrea (November 2008). "Abbé's refractometer". Chemistry World: 67. 
  48. ^ G. Binnig, H. Rohrer (1986). "Scanning tunneling microscopy". IBM Journal of Research and Development 30: 4. 
  49. ^ Press release for the 1986 Nobel Prize in physics
  50. ^ Salous, Sana (2013). Radio Propagation Measurement and Channel Modelling.  
  51. ^ Xu, Guochang (2010). Sciences of Geodesy - I: Advances and Future Directions.  
  52. ^ Betz, A. (1966) Introduction to the Theory of Flow Machines. (D. G. Randall, Trans.) Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  53. ^ "Martin Luther 95 Theses". Retrieved 2010-11-19. 
  54. ^ Bergius, Friedrich (May 21, 1932). "Chemical reactions under high pressure". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  55. ^ D. Valentin: Kohleverflüssigung - Chancen und Grenzen, Praxis der Naturwissenschaften, 1/58 (2009), S. 17-19.
  56. ^,_Wolfgang_Xaver_Franz,_Baron_von
  57. ^ Museum of optical instruments:Abbe-Refraktometer, Carl Zeiss Jena
  58. ^ "A History of the Carabiner". Mountain Spirit Institute. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  59. ^ Ralph Stein (1967). The Automobile Book. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. 
  60. ^ Dooley, Sean C., The Development of Material-Adapted Structural Form – Part II: Appendices. THÈSE NO 2986 (2004), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
  61. ^ Depatisnet:Bibliographische Daten (Deutsches Patent und Markenamt):Taximeter (German)
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