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Larnaca Salt Lake

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Title: Larnaca Salt Lake  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Larnaca, Cyprus, Ramsar sites in Cyprus, Lakes of Cyprus, Salt Lake
Collection: Lakes of Cyprus, Nature Reserves, Ramsar Sites in Cyprus
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Larnaca Salt Lake

Larnaca Salt Lake
in winter with part of Larnaca city in the background.
Basin countries Cyprus
Surface area 1,585 ha (3,920 acres)[1]
Average depth 1 m (3 ft 3 in)
Surface elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Settlements Larnaca
References [1]
Designated 11 July 2001

Larnaca Salt Lake (Greek: Αλυκή Λάρνακας, Turkish: Larnaka Tuz Gölü) is a complex network of four salt lakes (3 of them interconnected) of different sizes to the west of the city of Larnaca. The largest is lake Aliki, followed by lake Orphani, lake Soros and lake Spiro.[2] They form the second largest salt lake in Cyprus after the Limassol Salt Lake. The total surface area of the lakes adds up to 2.2 km2 and being just off the road leading to Larnaca International Airport is one of the most distinctive landmarks of the area. It is considered one of the most important wetlands of Cyprus and it has been declared a Ramsar site, Natura 2000 site, Special Protected Area under the Barcelona Convention[3] and an Important Bird Area (IBA).[4] It is surrounded by halophytic scrubland and on its bank lies the Hala Sultan Tekke, one of the holiest of shrines within Ottoman Islam. It houses Umm Haram’s tomb, Muhammad's 'wet-nurse'.

View of the lake

Besides its picturesque beauty, the lake is the haunt of 85 species of water-birds with estimated populations between 20,000–38,000. It is one of the important migratory passages through Cyprus. Among them are 2,000–12,000 flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber)[5] which spend the winter months there feeding off populations of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.[2] Other important bird species are the Grus grus, Charadrius alexandrinus, Larus ridibundus, Himantopus himantopus, Burhinus oedicnemus, Hoplopterus spinosus, Oenanthe cypriaca and Sylvia melanothorax. Flocks of birdwatchers gather to observe the blaze of pink from flamingoes as they gather in the centre of the lake but also the other important migrants. The Larnaca Salt Lake complex was declared as a protected area by a decision of the Council of Ministers in 1997.[6] Recent evidence suggests that contrary to previous belief the greater flamingo, (Phoenicopterus rubber) not only stops over but also breeds on this wetland.[7]

Aerial photo of the Larnaca Salt Lake (in winter) with Hala Sultan Tekke

During the winter months the lake fills with water whilst in the summer the water evaporates, leaving a crust of salt and a haze of grey dust. According to legend, the lake's saltiness stems from St Lazarus' request of an old woman for food and drink. She refused, claiming her vines had dried up, to which Lazarus replied: "may your vines be dry and be a salt lake forever more."[8] A more scientific explanation is that the salt water penetrates the porous rock between the lake and the sea, making the water very salty.

Salt harvested from this lake used to be one of the island's major exports, being collected by donkeys, carried to the edge of the lake and piled up into huge pyramidal heaps. With rising labour costs harvesting dwindled to a negligible amount and stopped altogether in 1986[2] as the island imports most of this commodity.



  1. ^ a b The Annotated Ramsar List: Cyprus
  2. ^ a b c "Report of the environmental audit of the city of Larnaca" (PDF). Medcities. May 1999. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  3. ^ Kassinis, Nicolaos; Michalis Antoniou (October 2006). "Proceedings of the first symposium on the Mediterranean action plan for the conservation of marine and coastal birds (p94)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  4. ^ Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A. (2004) Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus, Lefkosia 2004.
  5. ^ "BirdLife IBA Factsheet - Larnaca salt-lake". BirdLife International. 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  6. ^ Hadjichristoforou, Myroula (8 December 2004). "5th European Regional Meeting on the implementation and effectiveness of the Ramsar Convention" (PDF).  
  7. ^ Hadjisterkotis, E.; M. Charalambides (September 30, 2005). "The first evidence for the breeding of the Greater FlamingoPhoenicopterus ruber on Cyprus (Erster Brutnachweis des Flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber auf Zypern)". Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft 48 (Supplement 1): 72–76.  
  8. ^ "Saint Lazare in Larnaca". Damianos Foundation. Retrieved 2007-04-16. 
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