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Title: Jabalia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Operation Days of Penitence, North Gaza Governorate, Said Seyam, Beit Lahia, Timeline of the Gaza War (2008–09)
Collection: Cities in the Gaza Strip, North Gaza Governorate
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic جباليا
 • Also spelled Jabalya (official)
House in Azbet, Jabalia, destroyed by Israel in 2009
House in Azbet, Jabalia, destroyed by Israel in 2009
Jabalia is located in the Palestinian territories
Location of Jabalia within Palestine
Palestine grid 100/103
Governorate North Gaza
 • Type City
Population (2006)
 • Jurisdiction 82,877
Name meaning "The mountaineers"[1]

Jabalia also Jabalya (Arabic: جباليا‎) is a Palestinian city located 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) north of Gaza City. It is under the jurisdiction of the North Gaza Governorate, in the Gaza Strip. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Jabalia had a population of 82,877 in mid‑2006.[2] The Jabalia refugee camp is adjacent to the city to the north. The nearby town of Nazla is a part of the Jabalia municipality. The city is currently ruled by a Hamas administration.


  • Archaeology 1
  • History 2
    • Ottoman period 2.1
    • British Mandate era 2.2
    • Post 1948 2.3
  • Demographics 3
  • International relations 4
    • Twin town 4.1
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6
  • External links 7


A large cemetery dating to the 8th century BC was found near Jabalia. The workmanship indicates that the Christian community in Gaza was still very much in existence in the early Islamic era of rule in Palestine, and capable of artistic achievements. The remains of the pavement spared by the iconoclasts show depictions of wild game, birds, and country scenes. The late dating of the mosaic pavement proves that the intervention of the iconoclasts, after 750, is later than previously thought and is associated with Abbasid conservatives.[3]

While working on the Salah al-Din Road, laborers accidentally uncovered a monastery from the Byzantine period. The site was excavated by the Palestinian Department of Antiquities. Now the stunning Byzantine mosaics of the monastery are covered with sand to shield them from erosion caused by the direct impact of the winter rain.[4] Byzantine ceramics have also been found.[5]


Jabalia was known for its fertile soil and citrus trees. The Mamluk Governor of Gaza Sanjar al-Jawli ruled the area in the early 14th-century and endowed part of Jabalia's land to the al‑Shamah Mosque he built in Gaza. In Jabalia is the medieval Omeri Mosque. No structures from the ancient part of the mosque remain, except the portico and minaret. The rest of the mosque is of modern construction. The portico consists of three arcades supported by four stone columns. The arcades have pointed arches and the portico is covered by crossing vaults.[6]

Ottoman period

Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, Jabalia appeared in the 1596 tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Gaza of the Liwa of Gazza. It had a population of 331 households, all Muslim, who paid taxes on wheat, barley, vine yards and fruit trees.[7]

In 1863, the French explorer Victor Guérin found in the mosque fragments of old constructions, and at the well some broken columns.[8]

In the Palestine Exploration Fund's 1883 Survey of Western Palestine, Jabalia was described as being a large adobe village, with gardens and a well on the north-west. It had a mosque named Jamia Abu Berjas.[9]

British Mandate era

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jabalia had a population of 1,775, all Muslim,[10] increasing in the 1931 census to 2,425, still all Muslims, in 631 houses.[11]

In 1945, Jabalia had a population of 3,520, all Arabs, with 11,497 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[12] Of this, 138 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 1,009 for plantations and irrigable land, 1,036 for cereals,[13] while 101 dunams were built-up land.[14]

Post 1948

In late 2006 it was the scene of a mass protest against Israeli attacks, when a large number of people formed a human shield to protect a house which was about to be demolished by Israeli forces.[15]


Jabalia has a higher than average rate of male pseudohermaphrodite births. A Canadian-Palestinian pediatrician and urologist named Jehad Abudaia said that consanguinity due to cousin marriages is the reason why pseudohermaphrodite births are relatively prevalent. Because Gaza has a lower standard of medical care than many places in the Western world, pseudohermaphrodite conditions often go undetected for years after the births occur.[16]

International relations

Twin town

Jabalia is twinned with Groningen in Netherlands.[17]


  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 360
  2. ^ Projected Mid-Year Population for Gaza Governorate by Locality 2004-2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
  3. ^ Humbert, Jean-Baptiste. The rivers of Paradise in the Byzantine Church near Jabaliyah - Gaza Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem. 16 December 2000.
  4. ^ Jabalya Mosaic Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People. p.6. 2004.
  5. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 883
  6. ^ Travel in Gaza MidEastTravelling.
  7. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 144
  8. ^ Guérin, 1869, pp. 175-176; as referred by Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 251
  9. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 236
  10. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8
  11. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 4
  12. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 45
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 87
  14. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 137
  15. ^ Conal Urquhart in Tel Aviv (2006-11-20). "Palestinians use human shield to halt Israeli air strike on militants' homes | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  16. ^ Watson, Ivan. "Rare Gender Identity Defect Hits Gaza Families." CNN. December 17, 2009. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
  17. ^ "Groningen - Partner Cities".  


  • Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922 (PDF). Government of Palestine. 
  • Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. 
  • Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft.  
  • Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. 

External links

  • UNRWA Jabalia
  • Welcome To The City of Jabaliya
  • Survey of Western Palestine, Map 19: IAA,
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