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Dominikus Böhm

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Dominikus Böhm

Dominikus Böhm
Dominikus Böhm, by Hugo Schmölz
Born October 23, 1880
Jettingen
Died August 6, 1955
Cologne
Nationality Germany
Occupation architect
Known for architect of churches in Germany
Children Gottfried Böhm
Parents Alois and Katharina Böhm (nee Hofmiller)

Dominikus Böhm (October 23, 1880 – August 6, 1955) was a German architect specializing in churches. He built churches in Cologne, the Ruhr area, Swabia, and Hesse. Many of his buildings are examples of Brick Expressionism.

Life and career

Böhm was born in Jettingen as the youngest of six children to builder and major Alois Böhm and his wife Katharina (née Hofmiller).

He studied at the Augsburg University of Applied Sciences and graduated in 1900. He became a teacher at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach from 1908-1926. He also attended lectures by Theodor Fischer at the University of Stuttgart.

He worked with several partners, including Martin Weber and Rudolf Schwarz, designing and constructing churches.

He first taught at the Rheinische Technicum in Bingen, and than from 1908 to 1926 at what is now the College of Design in Offenbach, with the architect Rudolf Schwarz in a joint workshop.

In 1926, Böhm became professor for Christian art under Richard Riemerschmid at the Kölner Werkschulen in Cologne. His works, including the Christ the King church (Christkönigskirche) in Bischofsheim, polarized between support (e.g. by the art historian August Hoff) and rejection (e.g. Michael von Faulhaber).

During World War II he became (through his membership in the Block Kölner Baukünstler) member of the NSDAP, but never engaged in construction for the government, and went into semi-retirement. After the war, he retook his position in Cologne, and constructed eight new churches in the massively damaged city.

He was awarded the Federal Cross of Merit in 1950, and the Order of St. Sylvester in 1952.

Böhm died in Cologne, where he was buried on August 10, 1955.

Architectural expression and legacy

Böhm took advantage of modern building materials and techniques. By reducing the form of the church to its essential shape, the lighting of the altar and the sophisticated design of the altar, he created a new tradition of modern church architecture. In particular, he used light as a building material, and as part of the liturgy.

Böhm also considered liturgical questions which may have indirectly influenced the doctrine of the Second Vatican Council. His special merit was his belief in the participation of the community in worship, using the structure of early church buildings as a model. His churches are characterised by simple monumentality and especially by the new emphasis on the altar area as central.

Stained glass was one of his passions. So he designed the stained glass windows, built for Holy Ghost Church in Brunswick-Lehndorf in 1952. He also served as a musician and composer, and composed numerous songs and sacred music. The postmodern architect Heinz Bienefeld began his career as an assistant of his.

Part of his legacy is preserved at the German Architecture Museum in Frankfurt, while another part was located in the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne but was probably lost in the collapse of the archive building on 3 March 2009.[1]

He is the father of architect Gottfried Böhm.

References

  1. ^ Nine missing as Cologne archives collapse, AFP, March 3, 2009
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