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Treaty of Nöteborg

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Treaty of Nöteborg

The Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as the Treaty of Oreshek (Finnish: Pähkinäsaari) on 12 August 1323. It was the first settlement between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic regulating their border. Three years later, Novgorod signed the Treaty of Novgorod with the Norwegians.

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Contents 2
  • Aftermath 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Name

The treaty had no special name at the time, as it was just called a "permanent peace" between the parties.[1] Contemporary English language publications most often use the name "Treaty of Nöteborg" for it,[2] which is a direct translation of Nöteborgstraktaten by which the treaty has conventionally been referred to in the Swedish language literature. "Treaty of Oreshek"[3] is a similar translation from the Russian Ореховский мир. Both "Nöteborg" and "Oreshek" are old names of a fortress in Shlisselburg, used respectively in Swedish and Russian.

Recently, the name "Treaty of Pähkinäsaari" has appeared in some of the English language literature, as a direct translation of the contemporary Finnish name of the treaty, Pähkinäsaaren rauha.[4] "Pähkinäsaari" was the Finnish name for the island on which the fortress was built.

Contents

The original text of the treaty has been lost. It has survived in partial copies in Russian, Swedish, and Latin, which are somewhat conflicting.[5]

The border defined by the Treaty of Nöteborg showing the towns and castles of Vyborg (Viborg). The map represents a traditional interpretation of this much disputed subject.

The treaty was negotiated with the help of Hanseatic merchants in order to conclude the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars. As a token of goodwill, Prince Yuri ceded three of his Karelian parishes to Sweden; Sweden would in turn stay out of any conflict between Novgorod and Narva. Both sides would also promise to refrain from building castles on the new border.

The treaty defined the border as beginning east and north of Ostrobothnia and Lappland.[6]

Aftermath

Border stone

Olofsborg in 1475, clearly on the Novgorodian side of the border.

The Swedes' Russian counterparts refused to accept the apparent forgery until 1595, when the Treaty of Teusina acknowledged the Swedish text as the correct one. However, long before that, Sweden had succeeded in permanently taking over large areas on the Novgorod side of the original border, including Ostrobothnia and Savonia. Eventually, the territory west of the border, along with the expanse to the north, evolved into the country known today as Finland.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Treaty's Swedish and Latin texts". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.  as maintained by the National Archives Service of Finland. Note that neither text can be said to be fully original, since both have survived as later, and possibly modified, copies.
  2. ^ See e.g. [7] and [8].
  3. ^ See e.g. [9].
  4. ^ See e.g. [10], [11] or [12].
  5. ^ Nöteborgsfreden och Finlands medeltida östgräns. Andra delen. Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, No 427:2, VIII + s. 239-509. Helsingfors 1991. (97:1, 186-200). Detailed discussion about the conflict over the correct text of the treaty. See page 186. The Russian text is available in S. N. Valk, Gramoty Velikogo Novgoroda i Pskova (Moscow: AN SSSR, 1949), 67-68.
  6. ^ See Gallén, Jarl: Nöteborgsfreden och Finlands medeltida östgräns, Helsingfors 1968. Also see Gallén, Jarl; Lind, John: Nöteborgsfreden och Finlands medeltida östgräns, vol. 2-3, Helsingfors 1991.
  7. ^ See Skrifter. See also Michael C. Paul, "Archbishop Vasilii Kalika of Novgorod, the Fortress of Orekhov, and the Defense of Orthodoxy," in Alan V. Murray, ed., The Clash of Cultures on the Medieval Baltic Frontier (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009): 253-271.
  8. ^ Vahtola, Jouko. Tornionlaakson historia I. Birkarlit, 'pirkkalaiset'. Malungs boktryckeri AB. Malung, Sweden. 1991.
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