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Treaty of Moscow (1920)

The Treaty of Moscow (Bolshevik Russia.


  • Background 1
  • Provisions 2
  • Aftermath 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


The Democratic Republic of Georgia, led by the de facto recognition from the White leaders and the Allies.

Following an abortive Lev Karakhan for Russia, in Moscow on May 7, 1920.


In the first two articles of the Treaty, Russia unconditionally recognized the independence of Georgia and renounced all interference in the country’s internal affairs:

Article I: Proceeding from the right, proclaimed by the RSFSR, of all peoples to free [1]

Georgia, in its turn, undertook to disarm and intern all armed units belonging to any organization purported to have constituted a threat to the Soviet government, and to surrender such detachments or groups to Moscow. In a secret supplement, not made public for the time being, the Mensheviks made an even greater concession, allowing a local branch of the Russian Bolshevik party to function freely in Georgia.

Georgia pledges itself to recognize the right of free existence and activity of the Communist party … and in particular its right to free meetings and publications, including organs of the press.[2]


In spite of brief Menshevik euphoria of the declared diplomatic success, public opinion in Georgia denounced the treaty as "veiled subjection of Georgia to Russia", as it was reported by the British Chief Commissioner Sir Oliver Wardrop.[2] The government was subjected to harsh criticism over the concessions made to Moscow from parliamentary opposition, particularly from the National Democratic Party. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Moscow had a short-term benefit to Tbilisi as it encouraged hitherto reluctant Allied Supreme Council and some other governments to de jure recognize Georgia on January 27, 1921.

The Treaty of Moscow did not resolve the conflict between Russia and Georgia, however. Although Soviet Russia had recognized Georgia’s independence, an eventual overthrow of the Menshevik government was both intended and planned,[3] and the treaty was merely a delaying tactic on the part of the Bolsheviks[4] who, at that time, were preoccupied with an uneasy war against Poland.[5]

Pursuant to the agreement, the Georgian government released most of the Bolsheviks from prison. They quickly established a nominally autonomous Abkhazians and Ossetians, and provoking border incidents along the frontier with the Azerbaijan SSR.

After the nine months of fragile peace, in February 1921, the Soviet

  • (English) Full text of the Treaty.

External links

  1. ^ Beichman, A. (1991). The Long Pretense: Soviet Treaty Diplomacy from Lenin to Gorbachev, p. 165. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-360-2.
  2. ^ a b Lang, DM (1962). A Modern History of Georgia, p. 226. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  3. ^ Erickson, J., editor (2001). The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941, p. 123. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5178-8.
  4. ^ Sicker, M. (2001). The Middle East in the Twentieth Century, p. 124. Martin Sicker. ISBN 0-275-96893-6.
  5. ^ Debo, R. (1992). Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921, p. 182. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  6. ^ Toria, Malkhaz (2014). "The Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921 and the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008: historical analogy as a memory project". In  
  7. ^ Saakashvili Rules Out Georgian Neutrality. Civil Georgia. 2007-10-25. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.


Parallels have been drawn in modern Georgia between the Georgian-Russian diplomacy in 1920 and in the 2000s. In response to indications by several senior Russian diplomats that Moscow wanted to see Georgia "a sovereign, neutral and friendly country" rather than a member of military alliances such as [7]


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