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Standardization

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Standardization

Standardization or standardisation is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. This view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards.

Contents

  • History 1
    • First attempts 1.1
    • National standard 1.2
    • National standards body 1.3
    • International standards 1.4
  • Usage 2
    • Social science 2.1
    • Information exchange 2.2
    • Customer service 2.3
    • Supply and materials management 2.4
    • Defense 2.5
  • Process 3
  • Effects 4
    • Effect on Firms 4.1
    • Effect on Consumers 4.2
    • Effect on Technology 4.3
  • See also 5
  • Further reading 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

History

The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became highly important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts.

First attempts

Henry Maudslay's famous early screw-cutting lathes of circa 1797 and 1800.

Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability (an idea that was already taking hold) to nuts and bolts.[1]

Before this, screw threads were usually made by chipping and filing (that is, with skilled freehand use of chisels and files). Nuts were rare; metal screws, when made at all, were usually for use in wood. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were usually fastened in non-threaded ways (such as clinching or upsetting against a washer). Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts consistently to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size. This was a major advance in workshop technology.[2]

National standard

Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization; some companies' in-house standards spread a bit within their industries.

Graphic representation of formulae for the pitches of threads of screw bolts

Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first (unofficial) national standard by companies around the country in 1841. It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, and was widely adopted in other countries.[3][4]

This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats. These were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering.[1]

With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had previously used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, and improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing.

American Unified Coarse was originally based on almost the same imperial fractions. The Unified thread angle is 60° and has flattened crests (Whitworth crests are rounded). Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 12 in bolt is 12 threads per inch (tpi) in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC.

National standards body

By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade increasingly difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work."

The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body.[5][6] It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929. The national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, and enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation.

After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries. The Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commission Permanente de Standardisation, both in 1918.[1]

International standards

By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement. Lord Kelvin was an important figure in this process, introducing accurate methods and apparatus for measuring electricity. In 1857, he introduced a series of effective instruments, including the quadrant electrometer, which cover the entire field of electrostatic measurement. He invented the current balance, also known as the Kelvin balance or Ampere balance (SiC), for the precise specification of the ampere, the standard unit of electric current.[7]

R. E. B. Crompton drew up the first international standards body, the International Electrotechnical Commission, in 1906.

Another important figure was R. E. B. Crompton, who became concerned by the large range of different standards and systems used by electrical engineering companies and scientists in the early 20th century. Many companies had entered the market in the 1890s and all chose their own settings for voltage, frequency, current and even the symbols used on circuit diagrams. Adjacent buildings would have totally incompatible electrical systems simply because they had been fitted out by different companies. Crompton could see the lack of efficiency in this system and began to consider proposals for an international standard for electric engineering.[8]

In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the International Electrotechnical Commission.[10] The body held its first meeting that year in London, with representatives from 14 countries. In honour of his contribution to electrical standardisation, Lord Kelvin was elected as the body's first President.[11]

Memorial plaque of founding ISA in Prague.

The International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance international cooperation for all technical standards and specifications. The body was suspended in 1942 during World War II.

After the war, ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in

  • "Benefits of standards and standardization". COoperation Platform for Research And Standards (COPRAS project). 
  • "Which type of standards should my project pursue". COoperation Platform for Research And Standards (COPRAS project). 
  • "Why standards matter". ISO. 
  • "What standards do". ISO. 
  • "Who standards benefit". ISO. 
  • "Standards Myths". European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Retrieved 8 July 2009. 

External links

  1. ^ a b c Wang Ping (April 2011), A Brief History of Standards and Standardization Organizations: A Chinese Perspective, EAST-WEST CENTER WORKING PAPERS 
  2. ^ Rolt, L. T. C. (1962). Great Engineers. Bell and Sons. 
  3. ^ Gilbert, K. R.; Galloway, D. F. (1978). "Machine Tools". In Singer, C.; et al. A history of technology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  4. ^ Lee, S., ed. (1900). Dictionary of National Biography LXI. London: Smith Elder. 
  5. ^ "BSI Group Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  6. ^ McWilliam., Robert C. (2001). BSI: The first hundred years. London: Thanet.  
  7. ^ Lindley, David (2005). Degrees Kelvin: A Tale of Genius, Invention, and Tragedy. National Academic Press. p. 293.  
  8. ^ "Colonel Crompton". www.iec.ch.  
  9. ^ Johnson, J.; Randell, W. (1948). Colonel Crompton and the Evolution of the Electrical Industry. Longman Green. 
  10. ^ Dyer, Chris K.; Moseley, Patrick T.; Ogumi, Zempachi; Rand, David A. J.; Scrosati, Bruno (2010). Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources. Newnes. p. 540.  
  11. ^ "Report of Preliminary Meeting". The minutes from our first meeting. London:  
  12. ^ Friendship among equals - Recollections from ISO's first fifty years.  
  13. ^ Moreno, Juan A. (8 April 2009). "Interoperabilty and Standardization within NATO". NATO Standards Agency. thebolingroup.com. p. 11. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  14. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. pp. 232–233. 
  15. ^ Christensen, Clayton M.; Michael E. Raynor (2003). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 140. 
  16. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 229. 
  17. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 230. 
  18. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 233. 
  19. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 233. 
  20. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 233. 
  21. ^ Cowan, Robin. “High Technology and the Economics of Standardization.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Social and Institutional Factors Shaping Technological Development: Technology at the Outset, Berlin, Germany, May 27-28, 1991. p. 20.
  22. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 264. 
  23. ^ Christensen, Clayton M.; Michael E. Raynor (2003). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. pp. 131–132. 
  24. ^ Shapiro, Carl; Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. p. 231. 
  25. ^ Cowan, Robin. “High Technology and the Economics of Standardization.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Social and Institutional Factors Shaping Technological Development: Technology at the Outset, Berlin, Germany, May 27-28, 1991. p. 12

References

  • Dickson, E. W.; Singh, S.; Cheung, D. S.; Wyatt, C. C.; Nugent, A. S. (2008). "Application of Lean Manufacturing Techniques in the Emergency Department". Journal of Emergency Medicine 37 (2): 177–182.  
  • Langenberg, T. (2005). Standardization and Expectations. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  
  • Murphy, C. N.; Yates, J. (2008). The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) : Global Governance Through Voluntary Consensus. New York: Routledge.  
  • Russell, Andrew L. (9 August 2013). "Standardization in History: A Review Essay With an Eye to the Future". Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  • Wenzlhuemer, Roland (2010). "The History of Standardisation in Europe".  

Further reading

See also

The negative effects of standardization on technology have to do with its tendency to restrict new technology and innovation. Standards shift competition from features to price because the features are defined by the standard. The degree to which this is true depends on the specificity of the standard.[24] Standardization in an area also rules out alternative technologies as options while encouraging others.[25]

Much like the effect on consumers, the effect of standardization on technology and innovation is mixed. Increased adoption of a new technology as a result of standardization is important because rival and incompatible approaches competing in the marketplace can slow or even kill the growth of the technology.[22] The shift to a modularized architecture as a result of standardization brings increased flexibility, rapid introduction of new products, and the ability to more closely meet individual customer’s needs.[23]

Effect on Technology

Probably the greatest downside of standardization for consumers is lack of variety. There is no guarantee that the chosen standard will meet all consumers’ needs or even that the standard is the best available option.[19] Another downside is that if a standard is agreed upon before products are available in the market, then consumers are deprived of the penetration pricing that often results when rivals are competing to rapidly increase market share in an attempt to increase the likelihood that their product will become the standard.[20] It is also possible that a consumer will choose a product based upon a standard that fails to become dominant.[21] In this case, the consumer will have spent resources on a product that is ultimately less useful to him or her as the result of the standardization process.

Standardization has a variety of benefits for consumers, but one of the greatest benefits is enhanced network effects. Standards increase compatibility and interoperability between products, allowing information to be shared within a larger network and attracting more consumers to use the new technology, further enhancing network effects.[16] Other benefits of standardization to consumers are reduced uncertainty, because consumers can be more certain that they are not choosing the wrong product, and reduced lock-in, because the standard makes it more likely that there will be competing products in the space.[17] Consumers may also get the benefit of being able to mix and match components of a system to align with their specific preferences.[18]

Effect on Consumers

The primary effect of standardization on firms is that the basis of competition is shifted from integrated systems to individual components within the system. Prior to standardization a company’s product must span the entire system because individual components from different competitors are incompatible, but after standardization each company can focus on providing an individual component of the system.[14] When the shift toward competition based on individual components takes place, firms selling tightly integrated systems must quickly shift to a modular approach, supplying other companies with subsystems or components.[15]

Effect on Firms

Standardization has a variety of benefits and drawbacks for firms and consumers participating in the market, and on technology and innovation.

Effects

  • Emergence as de facto standard: tradition, market domination, etc.
  • Written by a Standards organization:
    • in a closed consensus process: Restricted membership and often having formal procedures for due-process among voting members
    • in a full consensus process: usually open to all interested and qualified parties and with formal procedures for due-process considerations.
  • Written by a government or regulatory body
  • Written by a corporation, union, trade association, etc.

Types of standardization process:

There are typically four different techniques for standardization

The process of standardization can itself be standardized. There are at least four levels of standardization: compatibility, interchangeability, commonality and reference. These standardization processes create compatibility, similarity, measurement and symbol standards.

Process

In the context of defense, standardization has been defined by NATO as The development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality in the operational, procedural, material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability.[13]

Defense

In the context of supply chain management and materials management, standardization covers the process of specification and use of any item the company must buy in or make, allowable substitutions, and build or buy decisions.

Supply and materials management

In the context of British Standards Institution (BSI). The International Customer Service Standard (TICSS) has been developed by The International Customer Service Institute (TICSI) with the objective of making it the cornerstone global standard of customer service. This standard has the status of an independent standard.

Customer service

There are many specifications that govern the operation and interaction of devices and software on the Internet, but they are rarely referred to as standards, so as to preserve that word as the domain of relatively disinterested bodies such as ISO. The W3C, for example, publishes "Recommendations", and the IETF publishes "Requests for Comments" (RFCs). However, these publications are sometimes referred to as standards.

In the context of information exchange, standardization refers to the process of developing standards for specific business processes using specific OASIS).

Information exchange

In the context of social criticism and social science, standardization often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardization in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratization, homogenization, and centralization of society.

Social science

Standardization is implemented greatly when companies release new products to market. Compatibility is important for products to be successful; this allows consumers to use their new items along with what they already own.

The existence of a published standard does not necessarily imply that it is useful or correct. Just because an item is stamped with a standard number does not, by itself, indicate that the item is fit for any particular use. The people who use the item or service (engineers, trade unions, etc.) or specify it (building codes, government, industry, etc.) have the responsibility to consider the available standards, specify the correct one, enforce compliance, and use the item correctly: validation and verification.

  • de facto standards which means they are followed by informal convention or dominant usage.
  • de jure standards which are part of legally binding contracts, laws or regulations.
  • Voluntary standards which are published and available for people to consider for use.

Standards can be:

Usage

NSBs may be either public or private sector organizations, or combinations of the two. For example, the three NSBs of Canada, Mexico and the United States are respectively the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), the General Bureau of Standards (Dirección General de Normas, DGN), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). SCC is a Canadian Crown Corporation, DGN is a governmental agency within the Mexican Ministry of Economy, and ANSI and AENOR are a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with members from both the private and public sectors. The determinants of whether an NSB for a particular economy is a public or private sector body may include the historical and traditional roles that the private sector fills in public affairs in that economy or the development stage of that economy.

In general, each country or economy has a single recognized National Standards Body (NSB). Examples include ABNT, AENOR, AFNOR, ANSI, BSI, DGN, DIN, IRAM, JISC, KATS, SABS, SAC, SCC, SIS, SNZ. An NSB is likely the sole member from that economy in ISO.

[12]

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