World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (945)

Article Id: WHEBN0008217114
Reproduction Date:

Title: Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (945)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cherson (theme), Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria, Varangians, Kievan Rus'
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (945)

The Rus'–Byzantine Treaty between the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII and Igor I of Kiev was concluded either in 944 or 945 as a result of a naval expedition undertaken by Kievan Rus against Constantinople in the early 940s. Its provisions were less advantageous for the Rus than those of the previous treaty, associated with the name of Igor's predecessor Oleg.

The text of the treaty, as preserved in the Primary Chronicle, contains a list of the Rus' plenipotentiaries (no fewer than fifty are named). The overwhelming majority have Norse names.[1] One part of the Rus' envoys swear to their pagan gods, while another part invoke the name of the Christian God, indicating that a substantial portion of the Rus' elite was Christianized.

Apart from Igor's wife Olga, two other archontesses are mentioned: Predslava, Volodislav's wife and Sphandra, Uleb's wife. It is not clear whether these two pairs of names (Slavic and Norse respectively) refer to some Rurikid relatives of Igor or represent a separate ruling family.

The treaty of 944/945 repeated several clauses from the previous settlements. The Rus' promised not to attack Chersonesos, a Byzantine exclave in the Crimea (Article 8). The mouth of the Dnieper River (Beloberezhye) was to be administrated jointly, although the Rus' were forbidden to winter there and to oppress fishers from Chersonesos (Article 12).

Article 2 contains novel provisions on maritime law. In order to distinguish peaceful merchants from raiders, each ship of the Rus' was to bear a charter of the Kievan prince, explaining how many people and how many ships would sail to Constantinople. Otherwise, the Rus' ships might be apprehended by the imperial authorities.


  1. ^


  • (Russian) Повесть временных лет, ч. 1—2, М.—Л., 1950.
  • (Russian) Памятники русского права, в. 1, сост. А. А. Зимин, М., 1952 (библ.).
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.