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An Introduction to Linguistic Science

By: Sturtevant, Edgar H.

...age [x], and hence it was at first written by the Semitic letter cheth. 8. Proto-Indo-European is the reconstructed ancestor of the Indo-European lang... ...ined in part by position in the sentence but chiefly by certain pre- fixed particles. Thus a prefixed ang [013] determines a nominal use, and either i... ...all these aberrant forms. A typical example is the prehis- toric change of Proto-Indo-European 3 intervocalic s to Latin r. Evi- dence for the origina... ...ages. The prehistoric language from which they are all descended is called Proto-Indo-European ( 224) . 4. Arbos and Lases are Early Latin forms. 5. T... ...s] and Modern [s]; Latin c before a becomes Old French [c] and Modern [s]; Proto-Indo-European intervocalic s becomes Latin r. These regular correspon... ...sal was syllabic n (like en in English fatten) instead of consonan- tal n; Proto-Indo-European pcd-ns yielded prehistoric Latin ped-ens, 12. Proto-Ind... ... in I942. 7 233. Hittitehas a system of sentence connectives including the particles ta, su, and nu. Adelaide Hahn 8 notes that in nearly all occurren...

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Proto-Indo-European particles

Encyclopedia Article

...rbs Adverbs used as adpositions Many particles could be used both as adverbs and postpositions. This is similar ... ...ives (like English bold-ly, beautiful-ly) arguably cannot be classified as particles. In Proto-Indo-European, these are simply case forms of adjective... ...lish bold-ly, beautiful-ly) arguably cannot be classified as particles. In Proto-Indo-European, these are simply case forms of adjectives and thus bet... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ...umerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...eligion Proto-Indo-European society ... ...studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ... ... Parts of speech The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed...

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Course in General Linguistics

By: Saussure, Ferdinand De, 1857-1913

...hile still a student at Leipzig, he published his monumental treatise on the Proto-Indo-European vocalic system. This treatise, though based on theori... ..., is still recognized as the most inspired and exhaustive treat- ment of the Proto-Indo-European vocalism. He studied under the neogrammarians Osthoff... ...e that had witnessed the appearance of his treatise on the vocalic system of Proto-Indo-European. We had to fall back on the notes collected by studen... ...f e in Greek o and a reinforced grade of a in Sanskrit a. The fact is that a Proto-Indo-European alternationwas reflected differently in Greek and in ... ... but the language of even that late period offers a more faithful picture of Proto-Indo-European than does Latin of 300 B.C. This one example is enoug... ...Nor did Proto- Indo-European use preverbs in compounding verbs; it used only particles—small words added to the sentence in order to pinpoint and modi...

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Proto-Indo-European language

Encyclopedia Article

... P Pinault's law Proto-Indo-European accent Proto-Indo-European language ... ...-Indo-European accent Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European nominals Proto-Indo-European numerals ... ...ndo-European nominals Proto-Indo-European numerals Proto-Indo-European particles Proto-Indo-European phonology ... ...s Proto-Indo-European numerals Proto-Indo-European particles Proto-Indo-European phonology Proto-Indo-... ...o-European particles Proto-Indo-European phonology Proto-Indo-European pronouns P cont.... ...ouns P cont. Proto-Indo-European root Proto-Indo-European verbs ... ...s Proto-Indo-European numerals Proto-Indo-European particles Proto-Indo-European phonology Proto-Indo-...

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The New International Year Book a Compendium of the World S Progress for the Year 1927

By: Herbert Treadwell Wade

...n- trol the respiratory group of these affections by excluding these foreign particles from the inspired air. The basic work in this direction has bee... ...der ordinary conditions the air contains what are termed climatic allergens (particles able to provoke asthma and other allergic diseases). Two types ... ...embling Indo-European. He suggests "a common even though remote par- entage (Proto-Indo-European)/* A group of Washo Tevts was published by G. Dangber... ...ber in which it is possible to free the air of those specifically irritating particles which provoke the paroxysms of asthma during sleqp. The $utch a... ..., finely divided copper appears in the solution as a suspension. The size of particles increases with the currents. Similar results were obtained with... ... consump- tion. COPPER. A method for the agglomeration of the slime and fine particles in leaching of ores, discovered at the Southwest Experiment Sta...

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Proto-Indo-European accent

Encyclopedia Article

...Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language. Con... ...rences Description Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable l... ...me PIE lexical categories could be unaccented (clitics). These are chiefly particles (PIE *-kʷe 'and' > Vedic -ca, Latin -que, Ancient Greek τε) an... ... Vedic Sanskrit evidence also indicates that in some positions Proto-Indo-European verb could be unaccented in some syntactical conditions... ... system as a system of two tones: + and − (probably high and low tone).[4] Proto-Indo-European would not thus have, as is usually reconstructed, a sys... ...cal tone in PIE. See also Proto-Indo-European noun (see esp. section on athematic nouns and ablaut-ac... ...umerals Particles ... ...me PIE lexical categories could be unaccented (clitics). These are chiefly particles (PIE *-kʷe 'and' > Vedic -ca, Latin -que, Ancient Greek τε) an... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 25:1 (1995:Sp)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

... code alteration in Nigerian English 75 YURIKO SUZUKI KOSE: Sentence-final particles in Japanese— an alterna- tive to scalar analyses 119 FRANSVAN COE... ...ces Volume 25, Number 1 (Spring 1995) [publ. February 1997] SENTENCE-FINAL PARTICLES IN JAPANESE — AN ALTERNATIVE TO SCALAR ANALYSES Yuriko Suzuki Kos... ...ois at Urbana-Champaign y-suzuki@students.uiuc.edu Japanese sentence-final particles (SFPs) show the speaker's atti- tude toward what is being said. P... ...duction In Japanese, there is a set of lexical items called sentence-final particles (SFPs) which convey the speaker's attitude toward what is being s... ...ssential in interpreting an utterance with SFPs. Previous analyses of such particles as zo, ze, sa, yo, wa, ne, and na claimed that the difference amo... ...M'S LAW. There is presently so much discussion about the con- sonantism of Proto-Indo-European and its daughter languages in general, that it is bette... ... student of Slavic culture these hundred pages, covering developments from Proto-Indo-European to Late Proto-Slavic, may provide adequate preparation ...

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Proto-Indo-European pronouns

Encyclopedia Article

...y for gender. For more information on these categories, see the article on Proto-Indo-European nominals. Personal pronouns ... ... Beekes also postulates three adverbial particles, from which demonstratives were constructed in various later lang... ... Pronominal adjectives Proto-Indo-European possessed few adjectives that had a distinct set of end... ... links The dictionary definition of Category:Proto-Indo-European pronouns at Wiktionary ... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ...umerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ... Beekes also postulates three adverbial particles, from which demonstratives were constructed in various later lang... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 12 (1982)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...ersite de Strasbourg, 86.) Paris: Les Belles Lettres. FRIEDRICH, Paul. 1975. Proto-Indo-European syntax. (journal of Indo-Euro- pean Studies, Monograp... ...ppendix (pp. U25-3't) to his famous 1892 paper on the ordering of clitics in Proto-Indo-European (PIE), Wackernagel tenta- tively proposed that in PIE... ....g. Delbriick 1978:U7-8 (on pronominal clitics), 1888:22-23 (on pronouns and particles, with some more detailed ob- servations on the relative orderin... ...s Delbriick's remark (l900:5l) that in Sanskrit, as well as in Greek, clitic particles precede clitic pronouns. In fact, however, strings of initial ... ... precede clitic pronouns. In fact, however, strings of initial deictics and particles are so com- mon in Vedic Prose that it is guite easy to establi... ...ial position. The second position, if filled, is held by unaccented sentence particles, most notably u 'and, but, now', ha (weakly emphasizing), sma (... ...a (emphasizing and/ or indicating habitual past action). The second-position particles may double up; and, if u_, ha, and sma thus occur in combinatio... ...syntaktische Regel der idg. Wortstellung. KZ 83.1-25. FRIEDRICH, Paul. 1975. Proto-Indo-European syntax. (Journal of Indo-Europe- an Studies, Monograp... ...ve linguistic area in the ancient Near East, an area with which perhaps also Proto-Indo-European or at least pre- historic Indo-Iranian , Greek, Anato...

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Proto-Indo-European root

Encyclopedia Article

...The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a le... ... plosives (sounds like *p *t *ḱ *k *kʷ or *bʰ; see Proto-Indo-European phonology for a complete table of PIE plosives) ... ... or verb stems by suffixation or by other means (see the morphology of the Proto-Indo-European noun for some examples). This can hold even for roots t... ... Ringe, Don (2006). A Linguistic History of English part 1: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic.  Rix, ... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ...umerals Particles ... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 1-2 (1971 - 1972)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...ed in non-linguistic terras; cf. eg. Smyth's statement: "The simple negative particles are ou and me. Ou is the negative of fact and statement, and co... ... as the suffix 5 is concerned, this view maintains that it is inherited from Proto-Indo-European. 0.2.3: The third major view implicitly or explicitly... ...all e-preterits, both those in -£ - and those in -f.^-, to be inherited from Proto-Indo-European. This view has been held by such linguists as Endzeli... ...al identity in formation. It also would 1U6 be impossible to find any other Proto-Indo-European source for the femin- inizing suffix ~e_ for vhich in... ...) and after consonants is concerned. In all of these environments after 147 Proto-Indo-European resonant or consonant, "both the contracted and the u... ...: '9-100. The main thrust of Ilagy's arguments can be summarized as follows: Proto-Indo-European had a rule known as Sievers-Edgerton's Law by which a...

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Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses

Encyclopedia Article

... Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language ... ...s Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-Europeans ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ... The Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses are tentative identifications of th... ... identifications of the Urheimat, or primary homeland, of the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European language. Such identifications attempt to be consistent... ...umerals Particles ... ...s Particles ... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 23 (1993)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...pre-clausality should of course be defined, is the location of 'sentential particles'. These elements, labelled 'PTCL' in all the examples in this pap... ... '^ Ergo, the (phonological) word immediately before any set of sentential particles is, by definition, the first word in the clause; anything before ... ...xus words followed by other words which are in turn followed by sentential particles. So evidently in cases like these it is not the nexus word, the d... ...t is possible for 'nexus' words to be fol- lowed immediately by sentential particles. Cf. (39). ^^ This variation is doubtless due to the fact that th... ...n go into the third position which in Vedic Prose is reserved for accented particles. For details and further discussion cf. Schaufele 1990b:171-179, ... ...estion that the widespread use of morphological reduplication in Munda and Proto-Indo-European may be attributable to early convergence 'and contact b... ...ould be reconstructed. Delbriick (1900:152- 153) considered it likely that Proto-Indo-European had iterated pro- nouns, numerals, and preposition-adve... ...truc- tures just mentioned. That is, although we can be quite certain that Proto-Indo-European had a pattern of lexical iteration, it is much more dif... ...are not cogent: The syntactic features (I - III) are either inherited from Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Indo-Iranian, or are ty- pologically natural i...

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Proto-Indo-European society

Encyclopedia Article

... Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language ... ...s Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-Europeans ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ... Proto-Indo-European refers to the single ancestor language common to all In... ...c, social or cultural one, so there is no direct evidence of the nature of Proto-Indo-European 'society'. Much depends on the unsettled Indo-European ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 14:2-15 (1984 - 1985)

...sbruck: Innsbrucker Beitrage zur Sprachwissenschaft Friedrich, Paul. 1975. Proto-Indo-European syntax. (Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph 1.... ... procesditsanalogiques. Acta Linguistica 5 17-34 LEHHAMN, Winfred P. 1974. Proto-Indo-European syntax. Austin: University of Texas Press 1982 Introduc... ...arily thematic and syn- tactic. Moreover, a number of languages use verbal particles to express aspect distinctions. We can say I turned it for three ... ... on turn . Only in Slavic, however, does thematization team up with verbal particles (prefixes) to express basic grammatical oppositions. The perfecti... ... pot [is] good' dasa ^' bad ' Asabe dasa 'Asabe [is] bad' The tense-aspect particles do not accept a spread tone from a preceding subject noun (13a) n... ... these two approaches, examining contemporary English as a continuation of Proto-Indo-European. A memorial to this brilliant linguist may well look in... ... turn. He seeks his units in root structure and the phonological system of Proto-Indo-European. Roots represented in Proto^ndo-European phonemes are m... ... the synchronic representations in EDM follow the refined statement of the Proto-Indo-European root and base structure formu- lated in Benveniste's mo...

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Proto-Indo-European phonology

Encyclopedia Article

... Phonemic inventory Proto-Indo-European is traditionally reconstructed to have used the followi... ...ean languages. Consonants Proto-Indo-European consonant segments ... ... linguists believe that all three series were distinct by the time of Late Proto-Indo-European, although a minority believe that the distinction betwe... ... Sonorants In a phonological sense, sonorants in Proto-Indo-European were those segments that could appear both in the sylla... ... Introduction It is disputed how many vowels Proto-Indo-European (PIE) had, as well as what counts as a "vowel" in that ... ...umerals Particles ... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 5 (1975)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...ticle clitics and pronominal clitics. The particle clitics include two modal particles and an adverbial particle. The pronominal clitics may be posses... ...) offers a similar argument for considering the use of (postposed) quotative particles inherited in Dravidian, which per- mits only direct discourse, ... ...enru ..' On the other hand, only some of the Ilunda languages have quotative particles which, moreover, dialectally disagree in structvire and formati... ...rker (Ehrman £ Sos 1972:29-30). These extra-Indian attestations of quotative particles cast doubt on Kuiper's argu- ment that in those Munda languages... ...ell taken, to the extent that they challenge the overly simplified view that Proto-Indo-European (always) had SOV. However, in many details his argume... ...) and seems to be a possible pattern also in Hindi. It may thus well be that Proto-Indo-European had SOV, but not necessarily P/, as its basic, unmark... ...l) and (2) go back not only to Indo-Iranian times , but perhaps to dialectal Proto-Indo-European times , extending at that time through those dialects... ...over, it is possible to argue that postpositive (THUS +) SAY is a feature of Proto-Indo-European . Considering that it survived (in limited, often spe... ...er Dumezil's (1958) meticulous and extensive documentation, its existence in Proto-Indo-European times, as well as the association of special colors w...

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Proto-Indo-European numerals

Encyclopedia Article

...The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern lingui... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ...umerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...eligion Proto-Indo-European society ... ...studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ... ...umerals Particles ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 22 (1992)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...iversally considered syntactic, such as the placement of clitic pronouns and particles (CPP), in some languages also of accented pronouns and particle... ...' of the type (7). Pluti has therefore been compared in function to question particles which are routinely assumed to be introduced in the syntax, cf.... ... following sections I argue that even the place- ment of clitic pronouns and particles (and syntactically similar ac- cented particles) within the cla... ...of 1892, it has been known that in the early Indo-European languages, clitic particles and pronouns, as well as accented, presumably non-clitic partic... ...wn (Hock 1982b) that if there is a multiple 'move- ment' of such clitics and particles to clause-second position, they stack up in a fixed order withi... ...2), the tendency toward P2 placement of clitics seems to be a feature of the Proto-Indo-European ancestral language; cf. also Hock 1982b and Hale 1987... ...us to explain P2 not simply as inheritance from a — possibly idiosyncratic — Proto-Indo-European antecedent. 5.1. Why P2? As observed earlier, Nevis (... ...a 1972 The PIE consonant shift in Armenian dialects The consonant shift from Proto-Indo-European in Classical Armenian is similar to the consonant shi...

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Proto-Indo-European nominals

Encyclopedia Article

...ndo-European languages. This article discusses nouns and adjectives, while Proto-Indo-European pronouns are treated elsewhere. PIE... ... Morphology The basic structure of Proto-Indo-European nouns and adjectives was the same as that of PIE verbs.... ...ensus as to which nominal accent-ablaut patterns must be reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European. Given that the foundations for this system were layed ... ...pounds, such as prepositions, numerals (*tri- from *tréyes 'three'), other particles (*n̥-, zero grade of *ne 'not', seen in English "un-", Latin "in-... ...calic allophone of *y. The same applies to the pairs *u/w, *m̥/m, etc. See Proto-Indo-European phonology: Vowels for further information on spelling a... ... Lowe, John J. (2011). Caland Adjectives and Participles in Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European.  Luraghi, Silvia (2009).... ...umerals Particles ... ...pounds, such as prepositions, numerals (*tri- from *tréyes 'three'), other particles (*n̥-, zero grade of *ne 'not', seen in English "un-", Latin "in-... ...umerals Particles ...

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Transactions and Proceedings : Volume 47

By: American Philological Association; Philological Association of the Pacific Coast

...hese and certain other remoter problems, and deal intimately with what we may term Proto-Indo-European. It is well that there are some scholars who fi... ...u- thor's desire to make it a sort of training school for his per- sonal system of Proto-Indo-European vowel-gradation. Vol. xlvii] Comparative Philo... ...doubtedly true that in certain phases of the subject, mainly in what I have called Proto-Indo-European reconstructions, there have been evolved formul... ...se, there can be no valid explanation of the uses of aXXa, yap, eVet, &>5, and the particles generally (cf. Cauer, Grammatica militans, p. 55). The pr... ...of linguistic laziness, which prefers to combine fewer well-known verbs with a few particles rather than remember longer and more highly specialized v...

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Encyclopedia Article

... Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language ... ...s Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-Europeans ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion is not directly attested, but reconstruction h... ... Proto-Indo-European Religion External links ...

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Selected Writings : Volume 1

By: Jakobson, Roman, 1896

...hich has revealed the granular structure of matter as composed of elementary particles. Written in Hunter, N. Y., Summer 1949, and published in Travau... ...) ; therefore theories operating with the three phonemes jt/ - /d/ - jd^j in Proto-Indo-European must reconsider the question of their phonemic essenc... ...without phonemic vowel differences, the attribution of a one-vowel status to Proto-Indo-European still con- tradicts our phonemic experience. Similarl... ...atment of auxiliary words (conjunctions, autonomous preposi- tions, andmodal particles to which the imperative desinential components must also be add...

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Grammatical particle

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 3 (1973)

...EG is mentioned. While discussing Imperatives (p. 63) he points out that NEG particles ne and met are used in imperatives, In his chapter on Syntax, t... ...omplete. Sahay begins his paper with a discussion of the distribution of NEG-particles which has already been presented in traditional grammars (for e... ...as been presented for the derivation of a njan from an embedded S . 1.0. NEG-PARTICLES AND THEIR EFFECTS CU THE SURFACE FORM OF AN S. Before starting ... ... on the scope of NEG in a simple sentence, I would like to discuss Hindi NTG-particles and their distri- bution at the level of surface structure sinc... ... their distri- bution at the level of surface structure since these negative particles have been used in the examples discussed in this paper. At the ... ...ern- ations^ as well as of course the principle of ablaut itself, go back to Proto-Indo-European, the i- ("and u-)stem forms in question can under no ...

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Pinault's law

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... Proto-Indo-European language ... ... Numerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...roto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-European society ... ... Indo-European studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ... ...k-language text CS1 Croatian-language sources (hr) Proto-Indo-European language Soun...

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Survivals in Belief Among the Celts

By: Henderson, George, D. 1912

...ts brings strength. A word may bring one into such contact ; to partake of particles of the sacred object begets contact ; to place a stone on the cai... ...nd be capable of magic transmission by contact ; and by imbibing the brain-particles with the water the epileptic's minimum of life was put in the way...

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Siebs' law

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...adjacent and tautosyllabic, something which is known to only occur in word-initial position in Proto-Indo-European anyway. Referen... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ... Numerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...roto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-European society ... ... Indo-European studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ...

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Transactions : Volume 1942-1946

By: Philological Society (London, England)

...certain roots before the s of the future and desiderative ', which Schulze regarded as proto-Indo-European (loc. cit. 105), that is to say, with the a... ...49, n. 3, is " homo- morphic " rather than " ofthesame substance ". It refers to those particles of the divine Light which can be collected in the " C... ...ions for grammatical purposes. A clear distinction between nouns, verbs, pronouns, and particles, the adjectives forming a sub-class under the noun. T... ...me rare and clear cases, be sought in word-composition. They are, as he says, either ' particles of roots, having taken over a semantic function, or "... ...explanation of these elements I think we shall get a most interesting insight into the proto-Indo-European system. If Benveniste's reconstructions are... ...iyam, which is probably the earliest specimen of Dravidian literature known, the three particles are classed as interrogative (El. 32), and it is spec... ...ly, where there is no question of a negative, that they cannot be regarded as negative particles. Bloch's conclusion that in Kui -a- cannot be an orig...

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Osthoff's law

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...ann Osthoff who first formulated it. The law operated in most of the Proto-Indo-European daughter languages, with notable exceptio... ...ure, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 417  Ringe, Don (2006), From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, New York: Oxford Unive... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ... Numerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...ndo-European religion Proto-Indo-European society ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 10 (1980)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...: (16) Gen-Nom Gen-Postposition Although some postpositions are unanalysable particles, Manessey (1975) notes that in Oti-Volta languages of the Gur g... ... is woman the head 'The cloth is on the woman' (Bird: 1966) The unanalysable particles in the above examples, 'ni', 'po' , 'ma' .etc., are original po... ... 'ma' .etc., are original postpositions of the proto- language. Indeed, such particles are found throughout the Gur language group. Since postposition... .... Since postpositions do not fit the pattern of SVO languages, these ancient particles can themselves be considered evidence for former SOV order of s... ...bal particle immediately precedes the verb. In SVO Gur languages, the verbal particles are adjacent to the verb. 52 (26) Ty^bara Wblo n l^'o koo (Mil... ...ichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 5. 101-63. SIHLER, Andrew L. 1967. Proto-Indo-European postconsonantal resonants in word-initial sequences. ...

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Stang's law

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... Proto-Indo-European language ... ... Numerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-European society ... ... Indo-European studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ... ... Categories Sound laws Proto-Indo-European language ...

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The Years Work in English Studies Volume Xxxiii 1952

By: Frederick S. Boas; Beatrice White

...masiologie, by H. Kronasser. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pp. 204. D.M. 14.70. 9 Proto-Indo-European Phonology, by Winifred P. Lehmann. Univ. ofTexas Pres... ...ders the rule that in each clause ofa verse sentence the unstressed sentence particles must be placed together in either the first or the second possi...

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Szemerényi's law

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...h a sound change and a synchronic phonological rule that operated during an early stage of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). Though its effects ... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ... Numerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...roto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-European society ... ... Indo-European studies Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 11 (1981)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...graduate student made some observations about the occurrence of the emphatic particles too and either in conjoined sentences which compare or contrast... ...s attitude toward the topic is objective. 1. Introduction Mastering Japanese particles is probably one of the most difficult tasks for Japanese learne... ...but also because there is the problem of ellipsis. As a matter of fact, some particles are frequently ellipsed in natural conversation. To provide an ... ...panese teacher repeatedly has to emphasize that students should not drop any particles so that they learn the correct uses of particles, and, on the o... ... satisfactorily. The explanation which most of the textbooks provide is that particles drop in rapid and informal speech. However, this is not the cas... ...nce shows this pattern to be inherited from Proto-Indo-Iranian and even from Proto-Indo-European. (Ibid. 35-7, n. 25.) As a consequence, hjrpo- theses...

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Bartholomae's law

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...ike the deaspiration of aspirated stops in clusters with s: descriptively, Proto-Indo-European *leyǵʰ-si "you lick" becomes *leyksi, whence Sanskrit l... ...Bartholomae's law predated Indo-Iranian, that is, that it was a feature of Proto-Indo-European. The Latin form lectus "couch" and Ancient Greek léktro... ... Proto-Indo-European language ... ...umerals Particles ... ... Proto-Indo-European religion ... ...eligion Proto-Indo-European society ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 19 (1989)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...er, another element is fronted, too, that element precedes, and sentential particles (if any) inten/ene between that fronted element and the RP or tad... ...pparently embedded RCs may contain 'initial strings' with sentence-initial particles like /7a and sma, and these same strings may recur in the part of... ...om the CC that follows. (61) (a)thoHASMA ^ etenaiva samna cyavano bhargavo particles yad yad asanarh cakame RP tad tad (d)HA sma sarasvatyal saisavad ... ...arh cakame RP tad tad (d)HA sma sarasvatyal saisavad udacati (JB 3.128) CP particles 'Now, by means of that very saman, Cyavana Bhargava, whatever foo... ...lements, presumably including tad/etad. Clitic pronouns follow COMP, while particles attach to the first element of the clause, whether that be TOPIC ... ... A conspectus. South Asian Review, 6.78-88 Watkins, Calvert. 1976. Towards Proto-Indo-European syntax: Problems and pseudo-problems. Papers from the P...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 30 (2000)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...nships be- tween words are shown by their order or by means of free-standing particles. Se- jong clearly understood that writing systems are language-... ...honeti- cally to represent Korean sounds, particularly those for grammatical particles and phrases, as well as proper nouns. 15 However, Coulmas (1989... ...ian and Iranian languages share a common sound change whereby the origi- nal Proto-Indo-European vowels e and 6 both became a, with the result that th... ...marked by morphological inflections as in standard English, but by preverbal particles. It would seem, therefore, that when Creole speakers are expose... ...l interpretation of the earliest stages of Vedic Sanskrit, projected back to Proto-Indo-European, formed fertile ground for the racist 'Aryan' ideolog...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 13-14:1 (1983 - 1984)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

...s proposal to analyze subordinate clauses as containing underlying indicator particles, and discuss the imlications of the proposed analysis as well a... ...ator particle baa although reference is made occasionally to other indicator particles. The importance of the particle baa has been recognized by ever... ... discussion is devoted to its semantic function. Previous works on indicator particles, including baa have, in my view, not been able to come up with ... ...basic structure of Somali sentences, including the distribution of indicator particles. In Section 3. I point out basic deficiencies of previous treat... ...ntence in Somali must contain one and only one indicator particle. Indicator particles occur only in main clauses. Sentences (2) through (10) are gram... ...de im Achamenidisch- Elamischen. Orientalia 12.23-30. FRIEDRICH, Paul. 1975. Proto-Indo-European syntax. Butte, Montana: Journal of Indo-European Stud...

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Natural History; Volume: 96

... first blush, this approach might seemdoomed to failure. After all, the dust particles that eventually fall to the ocean surface far from land are so ... ...aphers have discovered two processes that account for the rapid re- moval of particles from the surface of the ocean. First, feeding zooplankton filte... ...morphous organic aggregates in the ocean that settle rapidly and sweep small particles along with them. These two processes combine to re- move all sm... ...particles along with them. These two processes combine to re- move all small particles from the ocean surface very quickly, before the sea cur- rents ... ...rally drier continental climates, caused stronger winds (that carried larger particles) and increased the amounts of dust deposited at sea. During mil... ...sLanguages,byM. Rutilen (Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1987) depth to Proto-Indo-European oreven ear- lier. Examples of these more ancient grou... ... found in the Old World include mumu, "bee, fly," which may be compared with Proto-Indo-European *inu, "fly," and Amerind pal, "two, dual," which is a...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 20 (1990 - 1991)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

.... 8:2.163-204 (Fall 1978) Kendall, Sue Ann, & James Hye-Suk Yoon. Sentence particles as evidence for morphosyntactic interaction with pragmatics. 16:1... ...ic dental preterit stem. Irmengard Rauch. 5:2.125-138 (Fall 1975) Sentence particles as evidence for morphosyntactic interaction with pragmatics. Sue ... ... Urbana-Champaign) 10:30 - 11 :00: Vasat, s'rausat, and other Vedic ritual particles: Their origin and use in Vedic ritualistic literature (Hans Henri... ...i Union Chair: Bh. Krishnamurti (University ofHyderabad) 2:00 - 2:30: Case particles andpostpositions inKannada (S. Chandrashekar& S. N. Sridhar, SUNY... ...RCES OF A PASSIVE Eric P. Hamp (University of Chicago) It is not clear how Proto-Indo-European expressed a predication in passive diathesis, nor to wh... ...al pluti (+ trimoric vowel in the final syllable); and (iii) the fact that particles, discourse-deictics, clitic pronouns, and topic- alized elements ...

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Studies in the Linguistic Sciences : Volume 31 (2001)

By: University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign Campus). Department of Linguistics

... to operate, to establish itself, to earn credentials. The object could be particles in physics or the diffusion of cultures: it does not matter. What... ...e) (fishing rod and...hook (give/present) SUBJECT OBJECT ^ VERB The use of particles such as the subjective case marker, (i "wa" objective case marker...

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Natural History; Volume: 118, no. 3, Apr 2009

...Gothic Middle High German f\~~ — -Russi | ^Belarusian Ukrainian Tocharian^ Proto-Indo-European (High) German Yiddish Irish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic' / M... ...s in organic part- icles that cloud the view through our diving masks. The particles are food for coral, but there'sno coral in sight aswe descendpast... ...e more than a digestive sac with tentacles that catch plankton and organic particles. Colonies are composed entirely ofeither male or female polyps. I... ...others cover as much as twelve acres. Along with thin soil containing rock particles ofdolomite, they fea- ture boulders and occasionally ex- panses o...

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Biennial Review of Anthropology 1959

By: Siegel, Bernard J.

...ations between culturally differentiated groups in terms of the diffusion of particles of culture, rather than as an adaptation on the part of one or ... ...ury in Eu- rope. They had two emphases: (1) the historical reconstruction of proto-Indo-European culture-content by the use of linguistic tech- niques...

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The Green Odyssey

By: Philip Jose Farmer

...d English and Swedish, and Lithuanian and Persian and Hindustani back to a proto-Indo-European, but he had never found on any other planet a language ... ...ave been pierced with many tiny holes, and through these holes the charged particles of dust would have drifted. Once inside the collectors, they woul...

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The Green Odyssey

By: Philip Jose Farmer

... have been pierced with many tiny holes, and through these holes the charged particles of dust would have drifted. Once inside the collectors, they wo...

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S.V.U.Oriental Journal Part-1-4 Vol-21-22

By: Sankaranarayanan, S

...ery often his quotatians differ from the available ones by the introduction of particles. E.g. in N. K 20 Yaska explains the word kucara as caratîkarm...

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Survivals in Belief Among the Celts

By: Henderson, George, D. 1912

...it ku, whence huta, 'sacrificed,' also 'he to whom sacrifices are made.' A proto-Indo-European form for God, *ghutom, Schrader has defined as 'the div... ...ts brings strength. A word may bring one into such contact ; to partake of particles of the sacred object begets contact ; to place a stone on the cai... ...nd be capable of magic transmission by contact ; and by imbibing the brain-particles with the water the epileptic's minimum of life was put in the way...

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Teachers Guide to Education in Early Childhood

...der to imitate the highest genius in miniature, transposes, reduces, increases the particles of the present world in order to form a whole therefrom t... ...of explanation by remote prehistory. It was to lead to an emphasis on Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European rather than the study of contemporary speech, o...

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